The Structural Framework, Implementation Strategies and Students’ Perception of Team Based Learning in Undergraduate Medical Education of a Medical School in Malaysia.

Shahid Hassan, Mohd Salami Bin Ibrahim, Nabiha Gul Hassan




Background: Delivery and implementation strategies are key to curriculum success. There is growing evidence that team-based learning (TBL) is an effective way of interactive teaching. TBL is a method that uses learning teams to enhance student engagement and quality of learning. Individual accountability for out-of-class reading is followed by individual and group assessment. In-class application exercises, which is the hallmark of team-based learning promotes both learning and team development. TBL uses educational principles of transforming traditional content into application of knowledge and problem solving skills in an interactive learning environment.

Objective: To know the structural framework and students’ perception about TBL in clinical setting of MBBS program in a Malaysian medical school.

Method: A total of 120 students assigned to 22 small subgroups of 5-6 per group. TBL was delivered in three phases. In phase I students were assigned reading material. In phase II students were assessed for individual and group performance followed by a mini-lecture. In phase III, in-class application of learning activity was performed. Finally peer assessment evaluated contribution of peer in TBL. A TBL Classroom Evaluation Inventory (TBLCEI) was developed to probe student’s perception of TBL. In addition students were asked to provide their estimated grade in end of the posting assessment. Grades were categorized into excellent pass >85%, high pass 70–84%; average to good pass 50-69% and fail <50%. These grades were measured against students’ TBLCEI survey score using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results were considered significant at p < 0.05.

Result: Results of one-way analysis of TBLCEI scores differed significantly across four estimated end of posting achievers groups, F (3,116) = 52.279, p < 0.001. Bonferroni’s procedure of multiple comparisons indicated that mean value of TBLCEI score of High Pass significantly higher [70.90 (3.684)] than Good Pass [66.57 (3.625)], Pass [60.42 (3.583)] and Fail [57.67 (5.626)] at p < 0.001

Conclusion: It is concluded that medical students favourably liked teaching methods that useTBL as it increases students’ engagement in an outcome-based education. It also provided opportunities of frequent and immediate feedback with newly introduced IF-AT system, provided with partial credit in assessment.


Team based learning, TBL framework, Students’ perception, TBL evaluation inventory, IF-AT System, Students’ engagement.

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